Greek Search Cribs

Most tests unless noted are run against the NA 28 Greek New Testament.

Lexical Searches

No quotes. Finds all words derived from the lemma or lemmas matching the search term.

αγαπη finds all forms of this word in the specified search range

αγαπη θεος finds all sequences of two words derived from the lemma or lemmas matching αγαπη and θεος.

αγαπ* finds all forms of words derived lemmas which begin with αγαπ.

α?απ* finds all forms of words derived from lemmas which begin with α followed by any letter followed by απ followed by any string of letters. This finds things like ἀγαπητός, ἀναπαύσω, ἀναπληροῦται and so on.

Exact Lexical Searches

Where multiple lemmas differ only in accenting an exact lexical search may be done. While the popup list for the lemmas will make this unnecessary in most cases you can specify the precise accenting of the lemma like this.

=ἀρά will find words derived from this lemma meaning curse or imprecation and not the similar but differently accented lemmas ἄρα, then or therefore, or ἆρα, the interrogative particle. Typing αρα and choosing any of the lemmas will find all of them as a non-exact search does not consider the accenting.

Inflected Searches

Inflected searches find inflected forms that match the search string.

"ποιμένας" will find the one occurrence of shepherds in the accusative plural.

"ποιμέν??" will find all occurrences of words beginning with ποιμέν and ending with any two letters, again all occurrences of shepherds in this case.

"*μενων" will find all inflected forms of genitive plural middle/passive participles. It will of course find non-verbal hits with this form also, such as the one occurrence of ποιμήν in the genitive plural.

Exact Inflected Searches

"=καί" will find all occurrences of και with an acute accent (34 cases in the NA 28). Note this is also a case sensitive search so it misses the 3 occurrences of Καί that exist. By way of contrast searching without the “” you will be doing a search for words derived from the exact lemma καί and that yields a wholly different result with some 9162 hits.


The following wildcard characters exist in Accordance:

* searches for any number of characters
. searches for matches of the character immediately following the `.`
? searches for any single character

α??(=1)? finds four letter words derived from lemmas beginning with α with the second and third letters matching and any fourth letter. So it finds words derived from these lemmas ἀββά, Ἀδδί, ἀλλά, Ἅννα.

α????(=2) similarly finds words derived from 5 letter lemmas beginning with α and having the third letter (the second ?) and fifth letter matching. Thus it finds words derived from these lemmas Αἰνών, Ἆσσος, Ἀχαΐα.

α????(=1)* finds words derived from lemmas beginning with α and have the second and fifth letters matching and having any number of trailing letters. There are some 29 lemmas matching this pattern including αἴγειος, αἰφνίδιος, αἰώνιος, ἁλληλουϊά, ἀλλήλων.

.´ finds any words derived from lemmas containing a letter with this accent.

".`" finds any inflected forms with a grave accent even though the lemmas themselves might have an acute. Examples include δὲ and τὸν.

The operation of the . wildcard character can be a little unexpected. This search for example ".δ" finds all words in the text containing a δ regardless of where it appears in the word. It is also case sensitive meaning that ".δ" and ".Δ" are different searches. In addition one may not do something like ‘”.δ.α”‘. Accordance believes this to be an attempt to search for two words. Depending upon what you are trying to find with such a search "*δ*"@".α" may be what you want, finding all words containing a δ and an α without regard to the order the letters are in in the word.

"????(=2)?(=1)" finds five letter palindromes, whereas ????(=2)?(=1) finds words derived from lemmas which are themselves five letter palindromes.

Parentheses and <OR>

A list of words in parentheses or multiple words separated by <OR> will find either (or any) of the words in the list in the given search scope.

(και, Μαρία) will find all occurrences of verses (with default search scope) containing words derived from either or both these lemmas.

(και, "Μαρία") by contrast will find vereses containing και or this inflected form of Μαρια or both, Mt 27:56 being a very clear example.

As another example if you just want specific forms of Μαρια ("Μαρίας", "Μαριαν") for example will find them.

("Μ??", "Μαριαν") Wildcards may be used in the terms.

("Μ??", "=Μαρίαν") Exact searches may be included in the terms as well, this search find such words as inflected forms matching μ?? and the specific form of Μαρια: Μαρίαν, μεθ᾿, various forms of μὲν, μετ᾿, μηδ᾿, μὴν, μία, μοι and μου.

The @ symbol

The @ symbol is a way of joining together multiple attributes of the words you are searching for which could not otherwise be expressed together.

So while this crib sheet is not particularly concerned with other morphological tags this search gives a flavour of what this can do.

μαρια@ [noun accusative] with find all words derived from the lemma μαρια which are tagged as nouns in the accusative case.

μαρια@ [subject] finds all words derived from the lemma μαρια which are tagged as subjects in the syntax database. Note, that you will need the syntax database for this query.

μαρια@ [noun gen] @[subject] will the only case of a form of μαρια which is tagged both as a genitive noun and as a syntactic subject.

"?*?(=1)" @ [noun gen] @[subject] finds all inflected forms beginning and ending with the same letter and tagged as a genitive noun and as a syntactic subject.


Crasis forms are specifically tagged as such and can be found with a special search like this *@"χρασισ".

εγω@"χρασισ" will find all crasis forms involving forms of εγω.

More complex crasis searches expose some idiosyncracies and unexpected behaviour. The documentation makes clear that the “χρασισ” tag itself is attached to the second word in the crasis form. This implies that one cannot successfully search for και@ "χρασισ" and indeed you cannot. In order to find και forms in crasis words you need to search for a sequence of two words like this και *@"χρασισ". This exposes the way the two parts of the crasis are actually modelled as separate words.

A second complexity comes from the fact that you cannot search for an inflected form in a crasis as you would in a regular search. How does one search for καμοι for example. The obvious answer would be και "μοι"@"χρασισ" but this does not work. Nor does και εγω@"χρασισ"@"=μοὶ" What does work is this:

και εγω@"χρασισ"@[pronoun dative]

Now, searching for specific forms of the first word in the crasis requires some care in search construction. Imagine you wish to find all Κἀγὼ occurrences. The first portion of the search must match Κἀ but simply doing this "=Κἀ" εγω@ "χρασισ" yields a popup for the exact form of a word. In order for this to work you need to add a wildcard leading to this form "=Κἀ*" εγω@ "χρασισ". Logically this makes sense but it isn’t the first thing one might think to try. In fact I tried this Καὶ@".Κ" εγω@ "χρασισ" first which also works.

Curiously "=κἀ*" "=μ?"@ "χρασισ" applying similar principles to the second word of the crasis does not find κἀμὲ. Thus one is left with relying on morphological tagging to find it as per the dative pronoun case above.

Finally taking an example from 1 Clement in the Apostolic Fathers, if you wish to find such forms as τοὐπίσω as a crasis of του and something else you will do "=του*" *@"χρασισ". Note that here I have included the entire του not just το*. This ensures you only get the του forms and it works because * matches 0 or more characters. I should not here though we have an = in this the accent not required but if it is supplied it must be correct. This is true of regular exact searches.