Hebrew Search Cribs

Most tests unless noted are run against the HMT-W4 module.

Note that not all search string examples will cut and paste correctly directly into Accordance. They can be typed, but the problem with cut and paste relates to directionality from the browser to the Accordance. The search strings in some cases here will be mixed directional text which Accordance knows how to deal with. In the document here I have rendered them as they should appear in the search box rather than so they can cut and paste directly.

Prefixes and Suffixes

It should be understood at the outset that prefixes and suffixes of Hebrew words are modelled in the databases as separate words. This means they need to appear as separate terms in the search. The implications of this will appear from time to time in the searches.

A few simple examples will serve to clarify.

ב ארצ will find occurrences of בָּאָֽרֶץ whereas בארצ will prompt with a list of close lemmas.

likewise with a suffix to find occurrences of אַ֥רְצָה with a directional ה suffix you must search for ארצ ה. In this case however you will find many examples of ארצ followed by ה in some other word. A fuller treatment of the ה suffixes can be found below under “Directional and Paragogic ה”.

However, not everything you might think is a prefix or a suffix is considered a separate word. For example, morphological beginnings and endings for declining words are not modelled as separate words, there are simply part of the inflected form. But bound forms of pronouns, directional ה, prepositions and so on modelled as separate words.

Lexical Searches

ארץ will find all occurrences of words derive from this lemma.

את ה ארץ will find all words derived from the three lemmas. Note that though ה is always bound to its adjacent word it must be separated from it in the search. This is a common feature of Accordance lemma searches.

*ארצ will find all words derived from lemmas matching the search string. This will include אֶרֶץ and אַרְצָא.

*א?צ will find words derived from the following lemmas: אֶבֶץ, אִבְצָן, אוץ, אוֹצָר, אלץ, אֶלְצָפָן, אמץ, אָמֹץ, אֹמֶץ, אַמְצָה, אַמְצִי, אֲמַצְיָה, אֲמַצְיָהוּ, אֶרֶץ, אַרְצָא.

Exact Lexical Searches

There are quite a number of lemmas based on the consonants אדמ each with different pointing. By default lexical searches are consonantal only. To search for words derived from one particular lemma with specific vowels an exact search is employed.

אדמ= will find all forms from the lemma for the verb ‘to be red’.

אָדֹמ= will find all words based on the lemma for red.

אֹדֶמ= will find all words based on the lemma for ruby.

Further forms exist for man, Adam, Edom and leather.

Inflected Searches

"אמרו" will find all third masculine plural forms of אמר along with common plural forms in the qal perfect and the imperative masculine plural. If you wish to be more selective you will need to use grammatical tagging options.

Exact Inflected Searches

Like lexical searches inflected searches are consonantal by default. To find a particular pointing for an inflected form, or other exact form of a word, use ” and =.

"אִמְרוּ=" will find all occurrences of the qal imperative masculine plural of אמר. This may of course be found by the alternative search [verb qal imperative masc plural] @אמר.

Literal Searches

The searches above all been done as WORDS searches. Now we turn to LETTERS searches or literal searches. LETTERS searches are consonantal only and do not support wildcards. Any vowel is ignored, and any wildcard will cause Accordance to switch to a grammatical search. In addition any COMMAND keywords (AND, RANGE and so on for example) will cause a switch to a grammatical search. Note that the limitation on use of RANGE can be worked around by using the Range search option in place of the [RANGE ?] command. You also cannot use parentheses to provide a list of strings to search for.

A few examples will help to clarify.

אדוני will find four hits in these words : אֲדוֹנָ֔י, אֲדוֹנֶ֥יהָ, אֲֽדוֹנֵיהֶ֗ם, אֲדוֹנֵ֣ינוּ. תצפנהו will find one hit in Ex 2:2.

Note that these all include suffixes and they have been found without having to treat them as separate words.

אְַדוֹנָי finds the same hits as the first search above because the vowels are ignored.

יאמר אברם אדני will find this stretch of words in Genesis 15:2.

Wildcards

The following wildcard characters exist in Accordance:

* searches for any number of characters
. searches for matches of the character immediately following the `.`
? searches for any single character

(=1)??א finds four letter words derived from lemmas beginning with א and followed by two letters which are the same, that is to say the results will include forms of geminate verbs which begin with א.

For reasons I do not understand if there is a consonant with a daghesh between the two wildcarded letters that word will be included in the results. This is mentioned in the documentation but no explanation is given.

*(אל)?ּ= finds all words derived from lemmas starting with א or ל.

"*(אב)?=" finds all inflected forms beginning with either א or ב.

Wildcard searches will include results that you may wish to exclude. For example searching for “הוּ*” find third masculine plural verbs but it will also find third masculine singular suffixes. In order to exclude suffixes you can qualify this search so it looks like [suffix]-@"הוּ*".

"(=1)?(=2)????" will find all five letter consonantal palindromes.

Parentheses and <OR>

A list of words in parentheses or multiple words separated by <OR> will find either (or any) of the words in the list in the given search scope.

(מים, ל) will find verses (the default scope) containing words derived from either of these two lemmas.

Wildcards may be used as for example in (?מים, א) which will find words derived from the lemmas מים and those two letter lemmas beginning with א.

Sequences of words and <AND>

שׁמים ו את ה ארץ will find these words in the exact order they are entered here, in the search scope.

שׁמימ <AND> ארץ will find verses in which the two words appear regardless of the order they appear.

ארץ <AND> את ה שׁמים will find verse in which the sequence and the single word appear regardless of the order they appear.

The @ symbol

The @ symbol is a way of joining together multiple attributes of the words you are searching for which could not otherwise be expressed together.

So while this crib sheet is not particularly concerned with other morphological tags this search gives a flavour of what this can do.

[verb]@דבר will find all verb forms derived from lemmas having consonantal spelling דבר.

[subject]@דבר will find all forms derived from lemmas having consonantal spelling דבר which are tagged as syntactic subjects.

[subject]@[noun construct]@דבר will find all construct forms derived from lemmas having consonantal spelling דבר which are tagged as syntactic subjects.

Cantillation (accents)

(.׃,.֑)@* will find all sof pasuq and atnah marks.

Directional and Paragogic ה

Directional and paragogic ה are not morphologically distinct and thus a simple search like "ָה=" will find both. In order to distinguish them one should add a [SUFFIX] qualifier to the search string.

[suffix directional]@"ָה=" will find directional ה. But this is really overly complex in most cases and excludes non-qamats cases. It would be better to use [suffix directional] unless you expressly wish to find directional ה with qamats.

The case is similar with the paragogic ה with the simplest form being [suffix paragogicHeh]. Again if you wish to find paragogic ה with a specific vowel or you wish to check that the tagging is correct then searches like "ָה=" will have to be used.